Balsam fir tincture, made from the needles of Abies balsamea. The balsma fir was harvested in the pristine forests of the Northern Bruce Pensula, Ontario, Canada.
|Balsam Fir Needle Tincture|
|Botanical Name||Abies balsamea|
|Common names||Balsam Fir, Balsam of Fir, Balsam, Canadian Balsam, Canada Balsam, Eastern Fir, Bracted Balsam Fir, Blister Fir|
|Strength||1:2 40% : 1/8 veg. Glycerin|
|Dissolved Solids (µS/ppm)||0.27 / 200|
Then, to bring the better to the physical would be to watch the diet as to those things that give better assimilation throughout the body. Never taking in the body any properties when the body is worried or out of sorts, or in that of the distressed through mental reaction. Taking at least every second - third day half a teaspoonful plain Phosphate of Soda, to which is added six minims Syrup of Sarsaparilla, and once each week add to this one minim Canadian Balsam (one minim, see?) and take a regular morning and evening exercise for the body. Of morning, that which will give the equalized circulation to the upper portion of body. The circular bending motion of the upper portion of the body. In evenings, when ready to retire, those of the circular and bending motion to lower portions of body, to equalize circulation for rest and for activity. Not necessary these be made long or strenuous, but consistent and persistent.
To four (4) ounces of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol...................20 minims,
Keep this in glass container with glass cork or stopper. Have container at least three times the size of solution. Shake solution just before inhaling. Inhale through nostril and through the mouth, see? Inhale this three to four times each day.
Do that. We will find we will bring better conditions and will bring about corrections of conditions in this body, and - as will be seen after the change in the temperature, with these corrections - not so much cold will be taken, not so much inconvenience will be felt by the variations in cold feet and in cold hands, or in clamminess that comes to the body from time to time - tendency to perspire in evenings, or the easy inclination to have hot and cold flashes that occur under certain existent circumstances for the body.
In the lungs themselves, as we have given, there is not sufficient oxygen. This has been caused principally by the inhalation of some gaseous substance that has been detrimental to the tissue, or cells, themselves, rather than produced from internal forces.
Inhale into the throat, this:
To one-half gallon Grain Alcohol add:Benzosol (or creosote)....4 ounces,
Only the gas from this would be inhaled in the lungs for the condition in the throat, bronchials, and to equalize the effects as have been received in the lungs - not that these are organic conditions, but they must be overcome, if we would get perfect equilibrium.
IN THE NERVE SYSTEM, this overtaxed. Hence the nausea as is produced is rather from nerve reaction than from the conditions attributed to.
Then, to assist the body at the present condition and to overcome this present taxation, we would (through these, see?) first use as an inhalant this:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol...............20 minims,
Shake solution well together and inhale through the mouth. This is for the respiratory system and for the relaxing and action on same through the nerve and blood supply to the system.
(Q) What can be done to relieve the asthmatic condition?
(A) Relieve that pressure as is produced in the 3rd and 4th dorsal region. This will relieve the condition. Also use the inhalant, which would be in this proportion: Do not use this other than when there is cold or congestion. Remove it preferably by removal of the pressure, osteopathically, in this region, so we change the blood supply to it. But when necessary, use the inhalant, in this proportion and quantity:
To 4 ounce of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol.........................20 minims,
Keep in a container twice the size of the quantity, with a glass corked container. Do not shake solution other than when ready to be inhaled. Inhale both through nostril and through the mouth, into the lung. This will relieve the tendency to cough; also the asthmatic effect in the bronchials, see?
In the ears, nose and throat, we find that tissue, as is affected by cold and congestion, shows the effect of the congestion by pressure on those centers of the sensory system as govern the functioning of the system in respect to the functioning of organs as controlled in these portions of body. In nasal choked, and the passages show the effect of the accumulation of drosses not eliminated in other portions of system. In throat pressure shown, that the reflection from the inflammation produced there produces toxins in the tonsils and in bronchials and larynx. The effect of the pressure through the 2nd, 3rd nerve branches in face affect that circulation along the Eustachian Tube. Hence the ringing and unpleasant sounds and pains to the ear, for the pressure being depressed internal, the exterior pressure becomes too severe on the drum, see? Then, the relief for that portion: Small doses of Coco-Quinine, with the manipulation and stimulation to the system of those centers governing these portions of the body (the cervical, see?), and this used as an inhalant (ONLY inhalant), taken in nostrils and in mouth, see?Grain Alcohol..................4 ounces,
Keep this in a container with glass or rubber stopper. Shake solution well together and inhale by drawing in through nostrils or into the mouth, see, the fumes from same. This may be taken two, three, four times a day, or when necessary. This we find will remove this condition. To be sure, there must be kept the eliminations throughout the intestinal tract, and the diet must be looked after; while these conditions are showing their improvement, same do we find FROM this, this temperature is showing again, as we see. Also the rash as is produced in capillary circulation, for an overcharge or an excess of elimination coming through lymphatics. Turned then, as is seen by the action of the Coco-Quinine. Small doses given often - two or three days, see, to act on liver and reduce the condition, see? Then, bowels must be kept open, even though enemas may be resorted to at times.
In the lung proper we find the condition, as it were, that is, of tuberculosis, (that produces the ravages of the elements of the blood supplying force) shows the effect in the organ itself. Hence organic conditions arise from that of the lower portion of the left lobe of the lung itself. This also in sympathetic conditions shows the effect through the spleen in its functioning, which we will reach later here, you see. The cell chambers themselves of the lungs are good in many respects and may be builded to meet the resistance through proper stimulation and relaxation in the physical in this body.
The lung forces and those of the throat, bronchi and larynx should have by inhalations from this: To one gallon of grain alcohol add:Eucalyptol...............4 ounces,
Only the gas would be inhaled into the lungs from this solution. Preferably should be kept in a charred wooden container twice the size of the quantity of liquid, shaken well just before inhalations are taken through the mouth and deep into the lungs and bronchial.
In the physical functioning the body should take some precautions as respecting those conditions as have brought some distresses to the body, through those of the soft tissue in head and face, and keep those of infectious forces from same, that there may not be greater distresses later on with the muco-membrane portions of the respiratory system, as well as of the lacteals and lacteal glands in their functioning. These, we would find, would be most helpful to the body were these to be used occasionally; not every day, but when the atmospheric pressure, or when cold or congestion, or an unbalancing of the equilibrium of the circulation has disturbed the muco-membranes of the throat, bronchi, or nasal cavities, to use as this: Compound these in the ORDER as these are given:Canadian Balsam................1/4 ounce,
When this is to be used, put about half a teaspoonful of this (shaken well together) in a pint or more of BOILING water, using a cornucopia to carry the FUMES of same in throat, in nasal cavities. These will act as not only an antiseptic but as an aide as an expectorant, and relieve these tensions - and it'll be well to take care of this.
(Q) What can I do to clear nasal passages, especially when lying down?
(A) There may be used those properties that have been given. This is a most excellent manner of preparing same:
To 4 ounces of grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol, Oil of.....................20 minims,
Put this in a container at least twice the quantity, or twice the size. Shake together only when it is to be inhaled. When ready for retiring, inhale this into the nostrils - the FUMES, not the spray nor anything save the fumes. This should preferably be kept in a glass corked container.
For the congestion in throat and bronchi, the nasal passages, we would use a solution for cleansing or purifying the tissue that becomes involved - prepared in this manner:
To 4 ounces of pure grain (only grain) alcohol, in preferably a 6 ounce container with a glass stopper, we would add: (Or still more preferable, use a cork that has 2 vents in it. Only use this, though, when shaken together, to be inhaled into the throat and into the nasal passages. Neither of course, enter the solution, you see, but one so it may be inhaled into the nasal passages or into the throat when it is shaken together. At other times keep this glass corked.)Oil of Eucalyptus..............30 minims,
Keep this where the evaporation may be going on, or where it is warm, you see. Inhale deep into the lungs, or through the bronchi for the lungs, into the nasal passages, and let it act as an antiseptic. Do not use in a spray or take any as a drink; but as an inhalant of the fumes of same.
To 4 ounces of grain alcohol, we would add:Oil of Eucalyptol......................20 minims,
Keep this in a glass corked container twice the size of the quantity, or a 6 or 8 ounce container. Keep where it may be warm, and shake when to be inhaled through the nostril - which will act as an antiseptic, clearing the head, relieving those tendencies for accumulation of phlegm at times, in throat of evening or night, and will overcome the tendencies for the body to be subject to cold and congestion. Breathe into the nostril DEEP, so that it may go into the throat and lungs - preferably only in the nostril, first one side then the other. Shake each time it is breathed in - and this the gases from same, NOT the solution.
(Q) What can be done to relieve my head?
(A) The condition that disturbs the head is produced more by the distraughtness or pressure that is made upon the circulation, through the muco-membranes of the head, nasal cavities, throat, and the like. This is from conditions that have disturbed the body. Sympathetically, there is produced a reaction to the hypogastrics that makes for a disorder with the digestive system, so that there are times when the digestive system allows fermentation. Then, this produces a pressure again to the head, and is still the basis of that disturbance where there have been accumulations of poisons from a deterred circulation.
In removing the condition, then, we would use an inhalant for the muco-membranes in head, throat, in the antrums and soft tissue of the face, made in this manner:
To 4 ounces of grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptus, Oil of.,..................20 minims,
Keep this solution in a container twice the size of the quantity, or an eight ounce glass corked container. Only shake solution together when this is to be inhaled; then inhale deep into the nostrils (that is, from the bottle itself), either side, and into the throat. This solution is only an antiseptic, so far as cleansing powers are concerned, but is very penetrating in its effect and will clear the head. So much, now, for the CAUSES; for these inhalations, as given, are for effects, see?
(Q) What causes, and what should be done for, congestion in head?
(A) As indicated, there are those tensions produced by congestions through the centers or ganglia along the upper dorsal and through the cervical area - that allow congestions. With the manipulations and adjustments these will be more and more normal.
Occasionally, for the head, the throat, it would be found well to use an antiseptic that acts not so much as a curative as a preventative - which is also excellent for colds, or for those effects upon the mucous-membranes of the head; which would be prepared in this way and manner:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, in a 6 to 8 ounce container (preferably glass container with glass stopper, or the like), add - in the order named:Oil of Eucalyptus........................20 minims,
Whenever there is an aching through the head (that is, from the nasal passages), shake this solution well and inhale or breathe deep the fumes of same through the nostril and even into the throat. These act as a clearing of the tissue, making for a cleansing in a manner that will be most helpful. This may be done once, twice, three, four, five or six times a day. Only breathe the fumes of same; do not take internally. Keep the container tightly corked when not in use.
(Q) Is there anything body can do to relieve hay fever?
(A) For this the natural effect of the anesthesia as a part of the experience should be a helpful influence.
This body is especially allergic to certain pollens, and this be aided by the very activity of the two characters of anaesthesias used.
Afterwards we will find that the use of an inhalant would be well occasionally, - that is, when the body is free - or partially from the effect of the anaesthesia; for it will require several months, to be sure, to be entirely FREE of the effect upon the nervous system. But after two or three weeks we would use this compound as we will give, which will be most helpful and beneficial to the body for the irritation to the soft tissue of the frontal as well as the back antrum.
To 4 ounces of at least 90% pure grain alcohol - in a bottle twice the size of the quantity of the solution, with two vents in the cork or stopper in the large-mouthed colored bottle preferably - add, in the order named:Oil of Eucalyptus.................20 minims,
The vents would be kept tightly corked when not being used an a inhalant, and shake the solution well before removing the corks; then remove BOTH of the openings and inhale into the nostrils and also into the mouth the fumes from this compound. Use this whenever there is the inclination for the mucous membranes to be irritated, or when there is the sneezing or the sniffles, and we will find it will allay the temperature as well as the inflammation.
Put 4 ounces of dry Horehound in 16 ounces of water. Boil in an enamel container, rather than in aluminum or in brass or in iron. Reduce until when strained the quantity is 8 ounces, see? Do not allow to burn or scorch, but if the quantity is reduced lower, then add sufficient water to make 8 ounces. To this we would then add:Honey (but let it be pure honey).......2 tablespoonful,
Let this come to almost a boil, see? Then, when cool, add 2 ounces Grain Alcohol and 5 minims Oil of Eucalyptus.
Use this as an expectorant and as a stimuli to the bronchial circulation, for most of these ingredients will act directly with the pulmonary circulation and make for an activity particularly in the bronchi. Take half to three-quarter teaspoonful at a dose, which may be taken as close as two hours apart.
To 4 ounces of grain alcohol, in an 8 ounce container, we would add:Eucalyptol, Oil of...................20 minims,
Shake solution together when it is to be inhaled. When there is the spasmodic condition of sneezing, or the tendency to cough, or irritation, or tendency to clear the throat, this we would inhale in throat and in nasal cavities two or three times. This is only an antiseptic, but will clarify the muco-membranes of the throat and head, and assist in relieving the pressure in the system, PROVIDED those adjustments are made in the dorsal and cervical region.
(Q) What is the condition of the lungs?
(A) These we find show at present much of the effect of the condition as has existed, and does exist, in the bronchials and in portion of lungs. With the constant coughing and breaking of tissue, and with the constant filling up and slowing up of circulation and of the ability of lungs to discharge their proper functions, the irritation gradually pulls away, or takes off portions of tissue in lungs proper. Hence the change as it were in the structural portions of the body proper, or the thinning of the sides, in chest or upper portion of chest, and the filling out or protruding of the bone or structural portions proper. This exterior and interior condition in lungs.
This to be assisted and helped, we would take in the system those properties that will help eliminate in the blood stream and that will, through respiratory system, give the better effect to the lungs and bronchials proper.
Using then this:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol....................30 minims,
which will float and gradually dissolve when shaken in bottle. Keep tightly corked except when used as an inhalant. Use two or three times each day, or when there is spasmodic condition of coughing just a single or two whiffs or inhalants of same. If necessary to use the Creosote, reduce half quantity of that.
(Q) Each year beginning in May and lasting through July I have hay fever. Is there any way of preventing this?
(A) Hay fever, as we find, comes from three different direct sources, or the classifications of those who suffer from such a condition may be put under three general heads:
Those subject to odors, peculiar fermentations taking place in the atmospheric conditions throughout or wherever the body may be located. In such cases it is the supersensitiveness of the sympathetic system.
Then there is the class wherein there are physical conditions existent in a body that produce, under the impulses of the atmospheric pressures created at such seasons, the tendencies in that direction.
Then there is the general debilitation that exists, which makes the WHOLE body susceptible to the general condition.
This particular body, as we find, is subject to the second class.
So, there should be kept the general condition in the body that we have specified, as to bettering the resistance in the general physical forces.
Also (AT that particular season) make specific corrections in the cerebrospinal system.
Then, as a cleanser - or a PREVENTATIVE, in the form of an antiseptic for the general muco-membrane system (which will reduce the condition about 95% - and that would be well for the body!), prepare this as an inhalant:
In a container twice the size of the quantity, or an 8 ounce glass bottle - preferably a large-mouthed bottle requiring a cork that may be pierced with 2 small glass tubes, one a bulb on the end, where it may be inhaled into the nostrils and into the mouth, put 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol (which should be 190 proof). To this we would add, in the order given:Eucalyptol, Oil of................20 minims,
Keep this tightly corked except when being used. When ready to use, shake solution together and inhale deep into the lungs (as in smoking a cigarette) and into each side of the nostril, night and morning.
With these corrections and minding the diet, you can forget you ever had any hay fever; for you won't!
We would also use an inhalant that would CLARIFY the conditions in the throat, bronchia and lungs, as a form of antiseptic that is destructive to bacilli, or bacteria or a nature that is destructive to soft tissue. Such as is found in this, for this body:
To 6 ounces of grain alcohol, in a 10 ounce glass corked container, put:Eucalyptol....................20 minims,
Shake solution together before it is inhaled into the lungs, as one would inhale a smoke or a cigarette, drawing deep into the lungs. This will tend to CLARIFY the conditions.
We would prepare, then, as this for the inhalant that will effectually block and cleanse the throat, bronchial and lungs in such a way as to prevent the tubercle from spreading. Not sufficient care has been taken here as respecting the kidneys and the action as is being brought about by the diet as is being given. The rest, the climatic conditions are right - very good, but the others - not so well! For the inhalant, use as this proportion: To four (4) ounces of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol..........................20 minims,
Keep solution in glass corked container at least twice the size of the quantity. Only shake solution together when to be used. Inhale into nostril and throat at least four to five times each day - deep inhalations into the lungs, see?
Now, we find there are many exaggerated conditions in the physical forces of the body, produced by cold, congestion, and the bacilli as is produced in the system through this condition, or an excess of the number of the bacilli gives distress to the system through those weakened conditions of that portion of the system they (the bacilli) are most numerous in at the present time, and, with the condition of the system, brings an exaggerated condition to the functioning of the system, and the system, attempting to create that necessary to meet and combat with the condition, brings temperature and an excess of lymph in those portions of the system, namely the throat, bronchials, larynx, and the nasal cavities. The condition of the tonsil, being in that way of the exaggerated effect of this condition, becomes involved seriously in the condition produced. Hence the nasal, throat and bronchials give trouble. There is some temperature. This allayed somewhat by the increased number of the warriors in the system combating the condition.
To bring about, then, the better condition in the present, we would use this: While those as are being applied will assist, will eventually bring about a nearer normal condition, these, as we see, would aid materially and assist more in allaying the temperature and overcoming those conditions in the system, see? These may be used with or without those conditions being applied. We would use an inhalant to be taken through the nostril and through the mouth, or into the throat, bronchials and larynx, prepared in this way and manner:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, add:Eucalyptol.......................30 minims,
Shake the solution well together each time before inhaling. Keep the bottle with glass stopper. May be inhaled every hour, or every few minutes until irritation is allayed, see?
(Q) What causes the distressing cough this body has, and what can be done to stop it?(A) The after effects of the cough - whooping cough - and the weakness of the resistance in the body. To relieve this condition, use this as an inhalant, using same whenever the cough is at the worst, see? or just after such a coughing spell, which - as we see - occurs when the body lies down or soon after getting up. To four (4) ounces of pure grain alcohol, add: Eucalyptol...........................30 minims,
Take as an inhalant - which will act as a blood stimulant, a blood clarifier, and in the form of a cleanser for the condition - properties as would be found in this:
To four (4) ounces of pure grain alcohol, we would add:Eucalyptol......................20 minims,
Keep in a container - glass container, with glass stopper - at least twice to three times the size of the quantity, see? Shake solution and inhale through nostrils, and through mouth, excluding air as much as possible. Should be inhaled whenever there is the rise of phlegm in throat, or coughing, or dryness is found in any of the nasal or throat channels or passages. This acts as a stimulant, also as a purifier for the conditions, and purifying the breath, see?
An inhalant that would be excellent to prevent cough, to prevent smothering spells, would be prepared as follows:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, in a 6 ounce container, add:Oil of Eucalyptus..........20 minims,
Keep this preferably in a glass corked container. Shake before inhaling deep into the lungs, through the mouth - as well as through the nostril.
(Q) Please tell me how to get rid of this cough in chest.
(A) This cough and condition, which becomes aggravating principally when the body lies down, or on first awakening and the body starts the normal activities of the body - produced then, as is seen, by those conditions in the centers as govern the flow of blood and of nerve energy to the thorax and bronchials. Then, have the condition in the lower cervical and upper dorsal adjusted through two or three osteopathic adjustments. Using an inhalant to rid the system of impurity accumulations in the nasal, the throat and the lung cavities, those drosses as accumulate by improper circulation. Hence improper elimination. Such inhalant would be found in this:
To 4 ounces of pure grain alcohol, in an 8 ounce glass container with glass stopper, add:Eucalyptol....................15 minims,
Shake solution together and inhale when necessary - by the irritation produced in throat and head. Inhale through nostril; also inhale into lung, allowing as little air except that from the container to enter as possible. Do that.
Tannic acid, resin, volatile oil.
Canada pitch, or gum hemlock, is the prepared concrete juice of the pinus canadensis. The juice exudes from the tree, and is collected by boiling the bark in water, or boiling the hemlock knots, which are rich in resin. It is composed of one or more resins, and a minute quantity of volatile oil. Canada pitch of commerce is in reddish-brown, brittle masses, of a faint odor, and slight taste.
Oil of hemlock is obtained by distilling the branches with water. It is a volatile liquid, having a terebinthinate odor and taste.
Canada Pitch Plaster
Tincture of the fresh hemlock boughs
Tincture of the fresh inner bark.
Specific Medicine Pinus. Dose, from five to sixty minims.
The hemlock spruce produces three medicines; the gum, used in the form of a plaster as a rubifacient in rheumatism and kindred complaints; the volatile oil—oil of hemlock—or a tincture of the fresh boughs, used as a diuretic in diseases of the urinary organs, and wherever a terebinthinate remedy is indicated; and a tincture of the fresh inner bark, an astringent with specific properties, used locally, and internally in catarrh.
Therapy—Gastric irritation and vomiting in cholera morbus, leucorrhea, prolapsus uteri, chronic diarrhea and dysentery, irritation of the urinary organs, croup, rheumatism, eczema asthenic catarrhal conditions, with feeble digestion, and pallid mucous membranes, profuse bronchial secretion.
A tincture from the fresh boughs, or the oil, is a diaphoretic and diuretic, and may be employed internally, and as a medicated vapor bath in rheumatism, pleurisy orchitis from mumps, peritonitis, and all inflammations caused by cold. Internally it may be given in the gastric irritation of cholera mor. bus, and -in irritation of the urinary organs. The oil, full strength, may be applied with advantage to all sprains and bruises and to lumbago, rheumatism. and sciatica, also in herpes, moist eczema, fevers and psoriasis. It is also a good stimulating expectorant in chronic bronchitis and chronic coughs.
A tincture of the fresh inner bark of the hemlock may be employed in obstinate leucorrhea, diluted with two parts of water, being applied to the vagina on cotton, at intervals of several hours to secure a continuous effect.
The Forest Potawatomi gather the resinous exudate from the blisters on the trunk of the Balsam Fir, and use it, just as it comes from the blisters, for colds. Although they sometimes gather it in a bottle, it is more often that they go to the trees, open the blisters with their thumb nail and pick out the drops of Balsam to swallow fresh to cure a cold. Where it is gathered, it is saved in a bottle and used as a salve to heal sores. Perhaps the cure results as much from the exclusion of air from the sore surface as it does from the medicinal qualities of the Balsam. They also make an infusion of the bark to drink for curing consumption and other internal affections. Among the whites,the bark extract is considered stimulant, diuretic, anthelminthic, deturgent and vulnerary. The Dispensatoryrecords the practice of the Hudson Bay Indians who peel the bark, leaving the resin vesicles exposed and dry it. They call this “weakoc” and apply it to wounds. According to the National Dispensatory, it is valuable for its bitter and astringent properties. Many people have made pillows from the dried leaves of the Balsam Fir for the pleasant aroma that is considered to give relief from hay-fever and colds.
This is the name of the balsam tree and the medicine is known as “okikaxtîk.” There are two remedies from thi's tree. The liquid balsam which is pressed from the trunk blisters is used for colds and pulmonary troubles. The inner bark is also gathered, observing the same rules as in the gathering of white pine bark, with, of course, the particular song and a deposit of tobacco in the ground that accompanies all medicines. It is a very valuable remedy with the Menomini. The inner bark is steeped and the tea is drunk for pains in the chest. It is also used fresh for poultices. It is further used as a seasoner for other medicines. Inquiry as to whether the Menomini gathered the bark with the oil vesicles intact and used it as the Hudson Bay Indians do under the name of “wayakosh” for wounds, developed that they did not know this use. Yet the same effect would probably be produced by the inner bark used as poultices, which the Menomini did.
Bella Coola: Bark of root or of stem boiled, and the decoction taken internally every day for tuberculosis and stomach trouble. Said to have cured many cases of tuberculosis.
Gum from bark blisters found on young trees warmed, mixed with mountain goat tallow, and taken internally for sore throat; also drawn on a hair across sore eyes.
Young, green leaves baked, mixed with fruit of skunk cabbage (Lysichiton kamtschatcense Schott.) gathered in October, or the buds gathered in April, split, dried on top of the house, roasted, mixed with a small quantity of slightly roasted roots of the cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum Michx.), one or two cupfuls of the gummy buds of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa T. and G.), and four or five cupfuls of fresh eulachon oil, allowed to stand one day, then boiled and kept in a box for a hair perfume. Kitimat Indians said to be more expert in its preparation.
Southern Carrier: Tree used for medicine, but details not obtained.
Chilcotin: Not used.